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References:-(i) Todays Zaman. Klaus Jurgens. The limitations of urban development: Have we reached the limitations of urban organizing?(ii) The Related Programme on Flood Management (APFM). (iii) Flash Flood Management in Urbanizing China, Xu Jianchu and Li Zhuoqing,http://www.febapelcouture.com/blog/nike-free-3.0-v4-tiffany-blue.html, Kunming Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Science.(iv) Prediction and management of flash floods in urban areas (URBAS), Thomas Einfalt , Andreas Wagner, Fritz Hatzfeld, Jörg Seltmann.(v) IRIN, West Africa, Urban surge feeds flooding,http://www.febapelcouture.com/blog/nike-free-runs-on-sale.html, Dakar, 14 September 2009.
Prior to approving construction projects, city/municipal authorities could examine conditions affecting the construction area. Ideal practices inside the management of flash floods in urban areas warrant enhancing the disaster management chain and assuring these extend into urban planning. Among some authorities, the approach incorporate helping municipalities prepare for climate change. (iv)
Disasters in their aftermath bring forth rising criticism leveled at those responsible for not merely managing risks and disaster prevention, but additionally to the establishment accountable for urban planning. When disasters are deadly, with substantial number of deaths involved, and stark pictures of horror, suffering, and loss widely exposed by the media – then,Nike Free Run 2 Mens Fluorescence Green Running Shoes, the criticism will enhance to a crescendo of “poor management and negligence”. The deadly flash floods rang the alarms for town planners to heed and spend far more attention to environmental standards in rapid urbanization and industrialization. The full breadth of environmental realities as well as the state of natural resources together with steps which guarantees human safety ought to have provided the over-arching framework in generating t decisions pertaining to transportation, market and urban construction. (i)
While usually natural occurrences, flash floods are increasingly the result of human activities or poorly created infrastructure. Extremely couple of nations have flash flood management action plan. Amongst those that do,http://www.febapelcouture.com/blog/Nike-Free-Powerlines%2b-II-Womens-Pink-Running-Shoes.html, China stands out with severe penalties for negligence. Flash floods are frequent attributes in China with two-thirds of the Chinese territory becoming mountainous, the recurrent natural disasters compounded by monsoon climate, fragile mountain terrain and rising human activity. The threat confronts a total of 74 million population exposed to flash flood hazards inside the mountain region. In a period of four decades (1950-1990) a total of 225,000 died in floods in China. (iii) The action strategy calls for approval of any new construction in urban preparing contingent upon completion of a flash flood assessment.
Disaster risk reduction in identified potential flood prone locations should focus on extent of exposure and vulnerability. Exposure of urban dwellers close to river streams which includes infrastructure (roads, bridges, dams,http://www.febapelcouture.com/blog/Nike-Free-Run-3-Mens-Charcoal-Blue.html, energy houses) situated inside the same location requires greater attention. Vulnerability may be minimized by way of growing preparedness by way of flash flood guidance, community awareness campaigns, early warning systems, and planned coordinated emergency procedures. The Globe Conference on Disaster Reduction held in Kobe in January 2005 referred to as for the early warning system to be men and women centred, delivering timely and trustworthy warning to the individuals at danger.
Else where, like in West Africa, there is a growing awareness that “urban surge feeds flooding”, if left unplanned and unorganized, that’s. Dakar’s suburb of Guediawave was a dry location 30 years ago. These days, it’s a distinct story. The residents of this densely populated suburb endure floods every rainy season. (v) Explosive population growth, poor urban management, urban congestion, and indiscriminate creating in green belt zones all add on to shortening the fuse for disaster. Overpopulation in northern Nigeria has folks building homes on waterways, and natural drainage technique becoming blocked by rubbish. In spite of bans on construction inside the Dakar “cap vert” wetlands, this flood prone region received waves of rural-urban migration inside the wake in the 70s and 80s Sahel-wide drought. Now the region is full of buildings and roads which block natural waterways and basins.
Rapid economic growth aggravates flash flood hazards. As new construction takes more than arable land, and urban population density increases, infrastructural growth may possibly not proceed in tandem. Growth in urbanization inevitably reduces vegetation, wetlands and other habitats for flood prevention.
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